Owners typically brush only the outer (buccal) surface of the maxillary (upper) molars is brushed. The front teeth (incisors and long canine teeth) rarely need brushing, and the lingual (tongue) surface is not brushed. The back molars are the source of most dental infections and gum disease. Twice a week brushing is adequate and takes only 5-10 minutes. However, pets should be acclimated to the sensation of having their teeth touched as pups. Then as adults they more readily allow the treatment. Chewing large kibbles of hard food helps to keep tartar off teeth. After eating a dry food meal, most pets drink water and rinse their mouth. Alternatively, canned food remains on the gum line causing tooth decay and root rotting. Canned food predisposes pets to dental disease and weight problems and should be generally avoided. Brushing teeth 2 X weekly is the best way to keep the teeth plaque free. Special toothbrushes are made for pets. Small dogs have genetically weaker enamel and need more brushing and veterinary cleaning than large dogs that inherit stronger enamel. Many small dogs need veterinary scaling and polishing annually to maintain healthy mouths and bodies. Oral disease leads to heart, kidney, liver and immune system problems.